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Hortatory Exposition Text : Pengertian, Generic Structure, Karakteristik dan Contoh Soalnya

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A. Pengertian Hortatory Exposition Text

Hortatory exposition text adalah jenis teks yang berisi argumen/pendapat  dari penulis/pembicara  tentang suatu masalah yang penulis/pembicara  anggap penting untuk dibahas serta saran atau ajakan yang ditujukan untuk pembaca/pendengar  dalam menyikapi masalah tersebut. Karena yang mendominasi adalah argument, maka teks ini juga sering dikenal dengan sebutan Argumentative Text.   

Argument dalam hortatory exposition text harus  menyajikan alasan logis dan masuk akal untuk mendukung pendapat yang dikemukakan oleh penulis atau pun pembicara. Hal ini bertujuan untuk memengaruhi pembaca untuk melakukan sesuatu atau bertindak dalam hal tertentu setelah membaca/mendengar tentang sebuah topik yang dibahas.

Sebenarnya teks argumentative terbagi menjadi 2 bagian. Hortatory exposition dan analytical exposition text. Tetapi keduanya mempunyai fungsi yang berbeda.   Perbedaan hortatory exposition dengan analytical exposition terletak pada generic structure (struktur generik). Dalam eksposisi analitis, pengulangan digunakan untuk memberikan penekanan pada pendapat penulis berdasarkan sudut pandang ulangan. Sementara di hortatory exposition, rekomendasi digunakan untuk memberikan nasihat atau saran tersebut untuk pembaca untuk membuat pilihan dengan mempertimbangkan argumen yang disajikan.

Secara singkat, tujuan dari hortatory exposition text adalah untuk berdebat kasus untuk melawan posisi atau sudut pandang tertentu dan tujuan saran pada akhir argumentasi. Beberapa contoh hortatory exposition text adalah: Editorial, surat kepada editor, dan surat kepada seorang politikus. Fungsi sosial dari hortatory exposition text adalah untuk mengangkat suatu isu atau permasalahan dan menjelaskan pada pembaca mengapa suatu hal atau tindakan terhadap masalah tersebut harus terjadi atau dilakukan, atau tidak seharusnya terjadi atau dilakukan. Hal inilah yang ingin dicapai oleh sang penulis dengan menyajikan argument serta bukti pendukung yang meyakinkan.

B. Generic Structure Hortatory Exposition Text
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1.    Thesis Statement

Thesis berisi tentang pengenalan ide pokok penulis tentang suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang akan diangkat atau dibahas. Ini terdiri dari titik penulis pandang (tesis), preview argumen yang akan mengikuti bagian berikutnya, dan pertanyaan atau pernyataan emosional untuk mendapatkan perhatian pembaca. Bagian ini merupakan bagian awal atau opening dari sebuah hortatory exposition text. Dalam paragraf awal ini penulis akan menyatakan issue atau masalah yang menjadi topik bahasan dalam teks tersebut. Misalnya saja masalah yang diangkat adalah “penggunaan gadget yang berakibat buruk pada kesehatan mata anak-anak” maka inilah “problem” atau issue yang akan dikembangkan melalui paragraf selanjutnya yang berisi argument sang penulis.

2. Argument

Arguments berisi tentang pendapat-pendapat yang mendukung ide pokok penulis. Semakin banyak pendapat yang penulis tuliskan, semakin menarik sebuah Hortatory Exposition Text itu, karena pembaca cenderung percaya terhadap suatu peristiwa jika terdapat banyak pendapat yang mendukung di dalamnya. Biasanya dimulai dari paragraf kedua dalam sebuah teks hortatory exposition dan umumnya terdiri dari beberapa paragraf. Pada bagian inilah sang penulis bisa memberikan pemaparan nya mengenai masalah yang telah dia nyatakan dalam bagian thesis statement di atas, biasanya sang penulis juga akan menambahkan evidence atau bukti yang dapat mendukung pernyataannya agar para pembaca merasa lebih yakin akan apa yang dia nyatakan.

3. Recommendation

Recommendation berisi tentang Pernyataan tentang rekomendasi atau ajakan penulis terhadap pembaca untuk melakukan sesuatu yang ada kaitan nya pada Tesis dan arguments.Tanpa menggunakan kamus pun saya yakin sobat sudah langsung tau bahwa “recommendation” dalam Bahasa Indonesia artinya “Rekomendasi”. Bagian ini merupakan bagian akhir atau penutup dalam sebuah hortatory exposition text dan di sinilah sang penulis bisa menyatakan saran, bujukan atau desakan yang ia inginkan terjadi.

C. Language Feature Hortatory Exposition Text

Unsur kebahasaan atau language feature dari Hortatory Exposition text pada dasarnya tidak berbeda dengan analytical exposition. Hal ini karena keduanya sama-sama merupakan jenis teks exposition.  Ciri Bahasa Hortatory Exposition Text  secara umum  meliputi:

1. Menggunakan simple present tense

2. Menggunakan Action verbs: value, play, walk, change, grow, dan lain sebagainya.

3. Menggunakan temporal Connectives: firstly, secondly, thirdly, dan lain sebagainya.

4. Menggunakan evaluative words; importanly, valuablly, trustworthly, dan lain sebagainya.

D.    Contoh Hortatory Exposition Text
Contoh 1
                                                                   Country Concern

Thesis
In all discussion over the removal of leaded vehicles from petrol (and atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.

Argument 1
While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.

Argument 2
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about.

Recommendation
I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

Contoh 2

                                                                       Corruption

Thesis
Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.

Argument 1
The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials.

Argument 2
Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.

Recommendation
I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction.

Example of hortatory exposition about Where should be after High School?

Contoh 3

                                          Tourism Should be Benefit on Local People

What is the benefit of tourism for local people? Well, Tourism is now a huge contributor to the economies of most countries. Tourism industries can bring money, job vacancy and advancement especially to developing regions. However, this money often goes into the pockets of foreign investors, and only rarely benefits for local people.

Tourism industries will not give much benefit for local people if, for example, multinational hotel chains don’t care about the surrounding nature when they build new hotels. This can cause many social, cultural and geographical problems. Some local people may get job and money from that International hotel chain. However in case of missing that opportunity, some of them still have their own environment.

Moreover, some facts show that tourists tend to go, visit and spend their money in restaurants, bars and even luxury hotels of that multinational chains. They less go to such places; restaurant, bar, hotel, shop which are owned by local people. This can prevent the local people’s business from becoming even larger.

Most important thing, tours or excursions of tourism have little effect on nature. Even it can disrupt or destroy ecosystems and environments, and if it does, the local people will get the risk.

So the local government policies should be put in place to ensure that tourism will make the benefit spreading widely. The policies should guarantee that tourism will not cause any harm to any local people or places.

Analisa Generic Structure Contoh Hortatory Exposition diatas

1.Thesis: Paragraf yang berisi thesis penulis tentang hal penting sebagai ide utama essay pendek hortatory exposition. Pada contoh diatas, thesis yang dibicarakan adalah berkenaan dengan:

Tourism is only rarely benefits for local people.

2. Arguments: Beberapa paragraf berisi bukti, alasan, fakta yang bisa mendukung ide utama seperti dalam thesis yang telah disampaikan pada parafraf pertama contoh hortatory text. Pada cotoh diatas, arguments yang disajikan oleh penulis hrtatory adalah:

Tourism industries will not give much benefit for local people.

Tourists tend to go, visit and spend their money in restaurants, bars and even luxury hotels

Most important thing, tours or excursions of tourism have little effect on nature.

3. Recommendation: Paragraf atau kalimat penutup berisi hal yang harus dilakukan segera sebagai tindak lanjut atau rekomendasi penulis kepada pembacanya. Dalam contoh ini, recomdasinya adalah:

Local government policies should be put in place to ensure that tourism will make the benefit  local society

Contoh 4
                                                           Pontentiality of Online Job

Online jobs are selected in part-time employment for many, and some have taken more seriously. A growing number of people are willing to take a job online. Working online has its advantages if we manage efectively. Why not?

It offers flexibility and convenience that no other job can give. We can work from home with minimal investment and get a good income. The idea of adding weight to our pocket and makes life easier and comfortable is the most reassuring.

The reason behind this great opportunity is that every day there are new companies to join. Every day and every minute men are seeking information aboute verything under the sky of the Internet.

As we know, the Internet is the answer to every question, web sites need to update each section and also add reports on developments that have recently joined. Therefore, it is an expansive space for articles.

There are a number of jobs we can work online. Some of them which strongly recommeded are writing, marketing, stock trading, and online education. However we should be very careful because scamming opportunities are always there.

Analisa Generic Structure Contoh Hortatory Exposition

1. Thesis: Paragraf yang berisi thesis penulis tentang hal penting sebagai ide utama essay pendek hortatory exposition. Pada contoh diatas, thesis yang dibicarakan adalah berkenaan dengan:

Working online has its advantages

2. Arguments: Beberapa paragraf berisi bukti, alasan, fakta yang bisa mendukung ide utama seperti dalam thesis yang telah disampaikan pada parafraf pertama contoh hortatory text. Pada cotoh diatas, arguments yang disajikan oleh penulis hrtatory adalah:

It offers flexibility and convenience that no other job can give

The reason is that every day there are new companies to join.

Internet is the answer to every question.

3. Recommendation: Paragraf atau kalimat penutup berisi hal yang harus dilakukan segera sebagai tindak lanjut atau rekomendasi penulis kepada pembacanya. Dalam contoh ini, recomdasinya adalah:

Some recommendations are writing, marketing, stock trading, and online educatio

E. Contoh Soal Latihan Hortatory Exposition Text
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Read the following text to answer questions number 1 to 4!
                                                                  Skateboarding
Anybody who is over the age of six knows that there is nowhere safe for skateboarders to skate. This prevents young people from enjoying an active, energetic and adventurous pastime.

Just watch a local street for a short while and note the steady stream of skaters speeding up and down the footpaths. Toddlers can be trampled on and old ladies can be knocked down as they struggle home carrying their cat food from supermarkets.

Skateboarding is a serious sport that improves young people’s health. It increases fitness, improves balance and strengthens the joints in knees and ankles. Although it appears to be a solo sport, when groups practice together and compete to perform stunts or runs they form firm friendships.

Young people should be prevented from becoming overweight couch potatoes. If they are actively involved in skating, they do not smoke, take drugs or break laws for fun.

Kids will always seek thrills and excitement. They need to practice their 180s, 360s and Ollie’s free from restrictions. We must build skate parks in the suburbs so that streets are safe for small children and senior citizens and skaters have spaces where they can race, chase, speed, and soar towards the sun.

1. Where do the kids usually ride their skateboard?
     A. In the main roads and foot paths
     B. In front of the supermarket
     C. In front of their home
     D. In the suburbs
     E. In the park

2. What is the main idea of paragraph 3?
     A. There is no safe place for skateboarders
     B. Kids seek an excitement in skate
     C. The goodness of skateboarding
     D. The skateboarding is a serious sport
     E. How to prevent overweight by skateboarding

3. The writer’s purpose in writing the text is ….
     A. To invite the local teenagers to skate in a park built specifically for skaters
     B. To convince the readers that they need a safe place for skaters to skate
     C. To provoke youngsters into the local government policy
     D. To promote the writer’s business of skateboarding class
     E. To inform parents about the goodness of skateboarding

4. What must we do to let the skaters play?
     A. Join with them anywhere
     B. Give them space in the park
     C. Let them play in the main roads
     D. Let them play in the local street
     E. Build a skate park in the suburbs

                               Should Americans be forced to Public Transportation?
First, let me define what the question is and isn’t asking. It isn’t asking if we should we all abandon cars right now, nor is it asking if we should abandon them completely, nor is it asking if every American should do so. It is asking weather some Americans should have to take public transit some of the time, and I would say yes.

Oil use and pollution aside, in some cities like Los Angeles and New York there just isn’t room for any more roads, so in order for large cities to grow, they need more people to take public transit or risk permanent traffic jam. One bus can safely hold 40 people so even at half capacity that’s nearly 20 cars’ worth of space in traffic cleared up, and nearly 20 parking spaces that  don’t need to built.

There are a lot of people that can take  with transit little inconvenience but simply don’t because they never have in the past. If residents in areas with plenty of transit had to buy transit passes as part of their property taxes then they would have little excuse not to bus occasionally. QA number of universities already bundle a ‘U-Pass’ with their tuition feeds, forcing their students to take the bus. When given the change the majority of those students have voted to keep these programs.

A similar system in apartments where a portion of the tenants are not issued parking spaces in exchange for a discount on their rent would also be community car to several apartment tenants that arrange a schedule for the car, and this program gets many positive reviews.

So yes, I would say that Americans should be forced to use public transit, as Americans whom are already forced to do so find that it works well for them.

5. What does writer suggest?
     A. Americans should learn to use public transportation
     B. Americans should give up their car
     C. Americans should be forced to use public transportation
     D. The government should limit the number cars
     E. The government should charge extra taxes for those who uses cars

6. The following is one of the writer’s suggestions in forcing people to use Public Transportation ….
     A. Make people buy transit passes as part of their property taxes
     B. Banning the use of cars
     C. Stop automobile productions
     D. Fine people who do not use public transportation
     E. Limit the number of gasoline

7. What is the purpose of the article?
     A. Defining the functions of public transportation
     B. Arguing that Americans should not use public transportation
     C. Suggesting American the ways to use public transportation
     D. Asking for more public transportation
     E. Suggesting that Americans should be forced to use public transportation

8. What is the function of the first paragraph?
     A. Repeating the thesis or proposal
     B. Stating the proposal
     C. Stating the reasons behind the thesis
     D. Describing the problem
     E. Giving argument

9. In the article you find the word transit a few times. What does the underlined word means?
     A. Stop
     B. Transportation
     C. Exit
     D. Entrance
     E. Bus Stop

10. What the function of the last paragraph?
     A. Describing the problem
     B. Stating the reasons behind the thesis
     C. Giving arguments
     D. Stating the proposal
     E. Giving recommendation

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