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Descriptive Text : Pengertian, Generic Structure, Karakteristik dan Contoh Soalnya



A. Pengertian Descriptive Text

Dalam kesempatan kali ini kita akan membahas dan sekaligus memberikan penjelasan mengenai descriptive text. Selain mengulas mengenai pengertian descriptive text dalam bahasa inggris beserta contohnya, informasi mengenai fungsi, struktur teks, dan juga unsur kebahasaan dari descriptive text tersebut juga akan dibahas.

Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. Descriptive adalah teks dalam bahasa Inggris yang menggambarkan/mendeskripsikan sebuah obyek secara detail sehingga obyek tersebut seolah-olah nyata bagi pembaca dan pendengarnya. Tujuan dari descriptive teks adalah memberikan sebuah gambaran detail mengenai seseorang, benda, profesi atau keadaan sehingga seolah-olah nyata bagi para pembaca dan pendengarnya.

Secara umum descriptive text juga bertujuan untuk menjelaskan atau mendeskripsikan orang, binatang, tempat ataupun suatu benda. Umumnya, yang dideskripsikan adalah bentuk, ciri, ataupun sifatnya.

B. Generic Structure (Struktur teks)  Descriptive Text
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Istilah generic structure dipakai untuk menunjukkan bagaiaman penulis teks itu menyusun tulisannya sehingga pesan dan maksudnya lebih mudah tersampaikan kepada pembacanya. Berikut adalah generic structure teks descriptive bahasa Inggris:

1. Identification
Menidentifikasi phenomena atau benda  atau object tertent yang mau dideskripsikan. Biasanya ini letaknya diawal paragraf.

2. Description
Menjelasakan bagaimana rupa dan ciri-ciri hal yang sedang dideskripsikan tersebut. Secara umum apa yang menjadi patokan penggambaran teks jenis ini adalah bagian-bagian objek (parts),  kuwalits objek (qualities), atau cicir ciri da kebiasaanya (characteristics).

Dengan kata lain, descriptive texts adalah Sebuah bentuk wacana yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana keadaan seseungguhnya dari sebuah benda, rupa, sifat, keadaan, atau sebuah peristiwa itu terjadi sehingga baik pembaca maupun pendengar terkesan benar-benar melihat benda atau merasakan sebuah peristiwa tersebut.

C. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Sementara pembahasan language feature setiap jenis teks lebih mengacu pada kebiasaan umum yang sering dijumpai,. Jadi ini bukanlah aturan baku yang harus selalu diikuti oelh penulis teks descriptive

1. Using attributive and identifying process.

2. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.

3. Using simple present tense

D. Contoh Descriptive Text

Contoh 1 :

                                                              My lovely mother

I live with my mother. She  is a the best woman I have ever known.

She is not tall but not short, and she has long straight hair. Its colour is brown. Her eyes are like honey and. She has bright skin. It is light brown. I her thirties, her wight is 50 kg.

My mother  is a very good person. Everybody admits that she is lovely, friendly, and patient. She love her family very much. She loves me more than anything.

I love my mother. She makes me go home earlier. She cook delicious food. I never eat at a restaurant, because my mother always prepares  the meal.

Contoh 2:

                                                             My favorite teacher

My favorite teacher is my history teacher, and he is by far the best teacher that I have ever had. He has the ability to make a subject that many students find incredibly boring come to life through his enthusiasm and passion for history, and his love of being a teacher. Going to his lessons is something we look forward to, not dread, like we do with most other lessons.

It’s ever so funny to watch him get excited about something, which happens in every lesson. It’s easy to know that he’s getting excited because he begins bouncing up and down slightly in a way that no other sixty-something year old would ever managed without looking completely ridiculous. He has this dark (with more and more grey streaks these days), springy hair that lines the edge of his growing bald patch, and the hair bounces up and down with him like thousands of tiny little springs. Then, he takes on his whole new persona, often going into role and becoming the character or figure he is talking about, doing the voices, the actions, and parading up and down the room gesticulating wildly, but all the while there’s a gentle ‘bounce, bounce, bounce’, as though the springs are not just on his head but on the soles of his shoes too.

A teacher that doesn’t take himself too seriously always will be a big hit with teenagers, although he’s not afraid to impose his authority if he has to. I’ve only ever heard him properly shout once (although thankfully it wasn’t it me), but it isn’t an experience that I would like to repeat. When he lost it, the room suddenly became more silent than I’d ever known it to be before. We all sat slightly paralyzed, not even anting to breathe too loudly, because hearing such a jovial and jolly little man lose his temper was a huge shock. It certainly had the right kind of impact though, because he’s never needed to shout since.

It is actually this teacher that I have to thank for my love of history. In his lessons, history does not mean copying out of textbooks and writing pages and pages of notes. History is alive; history is something tangible, that you can see, hear and feel, and we can live it through dressing up and acting out scenes or taking trips to important places of historical interest. And although he’s getting on in years and may not be teaching for much longer, he will have an important place in history for many of his students, because there has never been a teacher able to bring a subject to life in quite the same way he does.

Contoh 3:
                                                                   My Garden

I love gardening. I have a small garden in my backyard. In the garden, there are some flowers. There are daffodils, Cambodian flowers, orchids, red roses and white lilies. My oldest daughter, Annisa, is crazy about red roses. She always helps me watering the flowers in the afternoon. I love all the flowers in my garden.

Identification pada contoh tersebut adalah taman atau kebun dan deskripsinya adalah taman tersebut banyak bunga dan sering disirami oleh Annisa pada siang hari.

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Contoh 4:

                                                                  Borobudur Temple

(Identification)

Borobudur is a Buddhist temple. It was built in the ninth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.

(Description)

Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 meter high and consists of eight steps like stone terrace. The first five terraces are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Buddhist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire upper structure is crowned by a large stupa at the center of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and stairways.

The design of Borobudur symbolizes the conception of universe in Buddhist cosmology. It is believed that the universe is divided into three spiritual spheres, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu. The first sphere, kamadhatu, represents respectively the sphere of desires where we are bound to our desires; the second sphere, rupadhatu, represents forms where we abandon our desires but are still bound to name and form; and the last sphere, arupadhatu, represents formlessness where there is no longer either name or form. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. With its magnificent size and architecture, no wonder that Borobudur Temple includes 7 wonders of the world.

Contoh 5:

                                                                 Kungfu Panda
(Identification)

Have you ever watch the cartoon movie “Kung Fu Panda”? The panda in the movie is described as a fat animal, love-noodle eater, and Kung Fu master. But the Panda that will be described below is not the Panda who can do Kung Fu like in that movie. Here is the description about Panda.

(Description)

Pandas are bear-like animal which originally live in center and western part of China. Pandas have distinguish features that make them different other species of bear. Pandas have white thick fur which covers all of their body with black eyes patches, ears, nose, legs, shoulders, and arms. Those black marks make Pandas unique and different.

Like other species of bear, pandas have a big head, a short tail, rounded ears, and a long muzzle with a big nose. However, pandas’ diet is totally different with other species of bear; in which they prefer bamboos than others. 90% of pandas’ diet consists of bamboos. That is why pandas have adapted their body to help them in eating bamboos. Pandas have a big jaw with tough muscles and strong molars to crush bamboos so they can extract the nutrients they need.

Contoh 6:
                                                                   Jember Regency

Jember is a regency in East Java. It is located in between Bondowoso and Banyuwangi. Banyuwangi is regency that is located at the easternmost end of Java Island, before Bali Strait, so that we can know that Jember is near enough from Bali Island.

Jember is a beautiful place. In Jember, there are a lot of interesting places to visit, such as Papuma Beach, Watu Ulo Beach, Watu Ondo, Pancer Beach, Rembangan, and so on. Jember also has a famous carnival, named Jember Fashion Carnaval. It is an international annual fashion carnival which usually held in August. Beside some beautiful places and a famous carnival, Jember also has a unique culture. People usually called it as Pendhalungan. Pendhalungan is an acculturation culture between Javanese and Maduranese. Jember has a total area of 3,293.34 km2. Because of that, it creates a different culture between North Jember and South Jember. In North Jember, there are a lot of Maduranese people and they usually speak Maduranese. On the other hand, In South Jember, not many Maduranese people live there. It is dominated with Javanese people. Because of that, it creates a new unique language which other regency do not have. The example is word “Cek” which means “very”.

Contoh 7:


                                                University of Indonesia Urban Forest

Located in South Jakarta and Depok which are densely populated cities, University of Indonesia area is a source of clean air. As much as 75% of the University of Indonesia area is a green area in the form of urban forest that has six large lakes whose acronyms form each word KAMPUS, which are K(enanga), A(ghatis), M(ahoni), P(uspa), U(Lin), and S(alam).

We can find this green area around Jalan Cinta, a road that stretches from University of Indonesia Student Dormitory to the Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia. On Sunday, various groups of people come to this area to carry out sports activities, such as jogging or just walking to enjoy the fresh air around. There are also some bicycle communities that use this forest as their bicycle tracks. Two commonly used tracks are known as Mangkuk track and Nyamuk track. All recreational activities in this urban forest are free of charge, but visitors still have to maintain cleanliness and orderliness from the campus environment. Besides it functions as absorption area, this forest is also used as germplasm conservation and biodiversity research land in one of the best public universities in Indonesia. There are a number of tree species found in this urban forest, such as Jati, Meranti, Kopi, Karet, and Matoa.

D. Contoh Soal Descriptive Text

Read the following text to answer questions number 1 to 3 !.

Kediri is a name of a town. It is situated in a valley between the Kelud and Willis mountains and inhabited by about 1.3 million people. In the centre of the town there is a large hill which is called the Dathok Mountain. Because of the topography of the region, Kediri is called a chilly town by the locals. There is a big river called Brantas cutting off the centre of the town.

Beside the temples, Kediri is also famous for its products like cigarettes and a special kind of tofu or bean curd. This highly nutritious food is delicacy of Kediri and has a distinctive taste. The cigarettes factory dominates the town economy and employs the majority of the women labor force. Kediri and the cigarettes factory are inseparable and it is considered the biggest cigarette factory in Indonesia. Most of the local people work in this factory. Those who do not work here are farmers or traders. 

1. What does the above text tell about?
     A. The history of Kediri
     B. The famous products of Kediri
     C. The description of Kediri
     D. The people

2. Which one has a distinctive taste?
     A. The cigarette
     B. The special food
     C. The bean curd
     D. The highly nutritious food

3. "Those who do not work here ..." (last sentence). The underlined word refers to ....
     A. The local people
     B. The factory workers
     C. The farmers
     D. The traders

Read the following text to answer questions number 4 to 6!.
                                                   Masjid Sultan Suriansyah

Masjid Sultan Suriansyah is a historical mosque. Built 300 years ago, this building is the oldest mosque in South Kalimantan. The mosque is located in the North Kuin Village of Banjarmasin. It was built in the reign of Sultan Suriansyah known as Pangeran Samudera. He was the first Banjarnese King who converted into Islam. This mosque was found on the bank of the Kuin River, near KampungKraton, which was destroyed by the Dutch colonial.

The construction of Masjid Sultan Suriansyah was unique. The roof is layered. It took the Banjar's past architecture before Islam came. Different from any other old mosques in Banjar, the mihrab has its own roof, separated from the main building. 

4. Masjid Sultan Suriansyah was constructed in the era of ....
     A. Banjar people
     B. Dutch colonial
     C. Kalimantan King
     D. Sultan Suriansyah

5. What is mainly discussed in the text?
     A. A king reign
     B.  A palace complex
     C. An Islamic location
     D. A historical mosque

6. From the text we know that ....
     A. Some construction of the mosque takes the local style
     B. Banjar people burned down the mosque
     C. There is nothing special from this mosque
     D. The Dutch colonial built the mosque

Read the following text to answer questions number 7 and 8!.

                                                                   Bale Kambang

Bale Kambang is a small village in the Southern coast of East Java, seventy kilometers from Malang town and two hours' drive from South. It is well known for its long beautiful white sandy beach as well as the similarity of its temple to the one of Tanah Lot in Bali.

In Bale Kambang, there are three small rocky islands namely Ismaya Island, Wisanggeni Island, and Anoman Island, those names are taken from "wayang" figures (Java traditional puppets). These islands are surrounded by Indonesian Ocean which huge waves frighten most overseas cruisers.

7. What makes Bale Kambang famous?
     A. Small rocky islands
     B. Long beautiful beach
     C. Huge waves of ocean
     D. Overseas cruisers

8. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?
     A. There are three rocky islands in Bale Kambang
     B. Huge waves frighten many overseas cruisers
     C. Names of rocky islands are taken from "wayang"figures
     D. The rocky islands are in the middle of the sea

Read the following text to answer questions number 8 to 10!


Barack Obama is the president of United States. He is an African-American. He is tall and thin. He is bald. He has dark complexion, pointed nose, and oval face.

He is the first black man who becomes the president of United States. He is known as a smart and wise man. He is a loving husband for his wife and a good father for his two children. People from all over the world adore him because of his spirit and action in creating peace in this world. He also looks friendly because he always smiles a lot.

9. What is the purpose of the text?
     A. To persuade the readers to choose him in the election
     B. To entertain the readers about the story of Barack Obama
     C. To report the life of the president of United States of America
     D. To describe Barack Obama's physical appearance and personality

10. "... dark complexion, pointed nose, and oval face." The antonym of the underlined word is ....
     A. Flat
     B. Short
     C. Straight
     D. Handsome
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