Factual Report Text : Pengertian, Fungsi, Generic Structure, Karakteristik dan Contoh Soalnya

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A. Pengertian Factual Report Text

Faktual Report Text adalah teks dalam Bahasa Inggris yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu berdasarkan kaidah-kaidah  ilmiah seperti fakta, data, contoh, dan teori-teori  pendukungnya baik berbentuk lisan dan tulisan serta bertujuan untuk menyajikan informasi secara transparan, benar, akurat dan ilmiah.

Dengan kata lain, factual report merupakan salah satu jenis teks yang menjelaskan sesuatu berdasarkan fakta, realitas, atau kenyataan atau sebuah teks yang terdiri dari fakta-fakta dan bukan jenis teks yang terdiri dari teori-teori tertentu atau pendapat pribadi sehingga factual report akan selalu  bersifat objektif dan mengandung kebenaran umum yang dapat dipahami semua orang.

Apabila seseorang sebuah  laporan penelitian ataupun sebuah peristiwa maka orang tersebut harus menuliskan prosesnya secara berurutan (runtun), terstruktur dengan baik, tidak tumpang tindih dan mengikuti langkah-langkah ilmiah.

Menulis teks faktual berarti kita juga sedang melakukan  sebuah proses komunikasi atau pemberian ide, gagasan, dan pikiran dengan bahasa yang dapat dipahami oleh orang lain dalam bentuk atau wujud bahasa tulis ataupun lisan yang berdasarkan fakta- fakta/bukti.

Pada hakikatnya menulis faktual berarti juga menulis ide/karya yang berbasis pendekatan proses dan menulis berbasis pendekatan genre karena mencakup kegiatan pembelajaran dalam bentuk praktik seperti kegiatan prapenulisan, penulisan berbagai bentuk faktual, pasca penulisan, dan menilai kualitas tulisan.


B. Fungsi Sosial Factual Report Text

Fungsi dari Factual Report Text  adalah

1. Mempresentasikan tentang sesuatu.

Factual Report berfungsi untuk mempresentasikan sesuatu dalam bentuk seminar, promosi, work shop, diklat, laporan kinerja, laporan penelitian, dan lain-lain Pada saat orang mempresentasikan sesuatu biasanya akan selalu diiringi dengan data, fakta dan juga langkah-langkah ilmiahnya. Bukti sangat diperlukan dalam mempresentasikan sesuatu karena hal tersebut akan berpengaruh pada tingkat kepercayaan (trust) dari orang yang membacanya atau mendengarnya.

2. Menjelaskan Fakta Tentang Sesuatu

Fungsi utama dari factual report adalah untuk menjelaskan fakta tentang suatu hal. Biasanya ia menjelaskan secara menyeluruh. Hal-hal yang dapat dijelaskan dengan factual report adalah hal yang berasal dari alam atau buatan manusia. berikut ini contoh teksnya:

"Cat is an animal that include in one of felidae family, just like Tiger and lion. Cat is also a mammal animal so it gave birth to its Children and feeding them Milk. It can live until more than 12 years. There are many kinds of cat that have been known in this World. the cat that we often meet is domestic cat but the most favorite kinds are persian cat and angora cat because their beautiful fur."

3. Pendukung dalam Karya Ilmiah

Selain fungsi tersebut, factual report juga dapat digunakan sebagai pendukung di dalam karya ilmiah. Hal ini dikarenakan di dalam karya ilmiah diperlukan banyak factual report untuk mendukung hipotesis atau dugaan ilmiah kita. Berikut ini contoh factual report sebagai pendukung dalam karya ilmiah:

"Eleutherine palmifolia L. Merr having antioxidant activity, its because of contain flavonoid fenolat and tanin. These compounds have effect in preventif of free radial which cause prematur aging. Research on etanol extract of E palmifolia L. Merr wich formulated into antioxidant Cream have been done by applying variation on TEA emulgator and stearic acid."


C. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure)  Factual Report

1. General Clasification (Klasifikasi umum)
Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.  menyatakan klasifikasi aspek umum hal: hewan, tempat umum, tanaman, dll yang akan dibahas secara umum.

2. Description (Keterangan)
Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya.

Penulis/pembicara juga akan memberikan penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah. Bagian ini menggambarkan hal yang akan dibahas secara rinci: bagian per bagian, adat-istiadat atau perbuatan untuk makhluk hidup dan penggunaan bahan.

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D. Karakteristik Factual Report Text

Sama halnya dengan report text, maka ciri-ciri dari Factual Report Text adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Berisi fakta-fakta ilmiah yang ditulis dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense.

2. Tidak menampilkan judul spesifik dan biasanya bersifat umum saja

3. Menyajikan gambar, data statistik, diagram atau peta untuk meyakinkan bahwa hasil penelitiannya dilakukan secara ilmiah.

4. Menggunakan kata benda umum (general nouns)

5. Menggunakan kata kerja yang saling berhubungan (relating verbs)

6. Terdiri dari sebuah objek ditambah objek tentang alam lainnya.

7. Menjelaskan kelompok atau aspek umum, bukan individu secara khusus.

8. Menggunakan conditional logical conjunction; when, so, futhermore, in addition, dan lain sebagainya.

Baca juga :

E. Contoh Factual Report Text

Text 1

Volcanic eruptions happen when lava and gas are discharged from a volcanic vent. The most common consequences of this are population movements as large numbers of people are often forced to flee the moving lava flow. Volcanic eruptions often cause temporary food shortages and volcanic ash landslides called Lahar.

The most dangerous type of volcanic eruption is referred to as a 'glowing avalanche'. This is when freshly erupted magma forms hot pyroclastic flow which have temperatures of up to 1,200 degrees. The pyroclastic flow is formed from rock fragments following a volcanic explosion , the flow surges down the flanks of the volcano at speeds of up to several hundred kilometres per hour, to distances often up to 10km and occasionally as far as 40 km from the original disaster site.

The International Federation response adjusts to meet the needs of each specific circumstance. As population movement is often a consequence, the provision of safe areas, shelter, water, food and health supplies are primordial. In general response prioritizes temporary shelter materials; safe water and basic sanitation; food supplies; and the short term provision of basic health services and supplies.

Text 2

The polar bear is a very big white bear. We call it the polar bear because it lives inside the Arctic Circle near the North Pole. There are no polar bears at the South Pole. The polar bears liveat the North Pole. There is only snow, ice, and water. There is not any land.

These bears are three meters long, and weigh 450 kilos. They can stand up on their backlegs because they have very wide feet. They can use their front legs like arms. The polar bears canswim very well. They can swim 120 kilometers out into the water. They catch fish and sea animals for food. They go into the sea when they are afraid. 

People like to kill the polar bears for their beautiful white coats. The governments of Canada, the &nited States, and 'ussia say that no one can kill polar bears now. They do not want all of these beautiful animals to die

Text 3

The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Constructed in 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World’s Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world: 6.98 million people ascended it in 2011.[The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010.

The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. Its base is square, 125 metres (410 ft) on a side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Due to the addition of the aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Not including broadcast aerials, it is the second-tallest structure in France, after the Millau Viaduct.

The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second. The top level’s upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground, the highest accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift.

F. Contoh Soal Factual Report
I. Objective Test

Text 1

                                                                  Jellyfish

Jellyfish are not really fish. they are invertebrate animals. this means that unlike fish or people, they have no backbones.in fact, they have no bones at all.

Jellyfish have stomach and mouths, but no heads. they have nervous systems for sensing the world around them, but no brains. they are made almost entirely of water, which is why you can look through them.

Some jellyfish can glow in darkness by making their own light. The light is made by a chemical reaction inside the jellyfish . Scientists believe jellyfish glow for several reasons. for example, they may glow to scare away predator or to attract animals they like to eat.

Most jellyfish live in salt water, apart from a few types that live in fresh water. jellyfish are found in oceans and seas all over the world. They live in warm, tropical seas and in icy waters near north and south poles.

1. What is the purpose of the text?

A. To tell how sea jellyfish live.
B. To describe particular jellyfish
C. To convince that jellyfish are not fish
D. To compare between jellyfish and fish
E. To inform general description of jellyfish

2. What information can you get from paragraph 3 and 4?

A. Most of Jellyfish live in  salt water.
B. Some Jellyfish glow for some reasons.
C. Jellyfish can live in oceans all over the world.
D. Jellyfish produce their own light that’s made by chemical reaction.
E. Jellyfish can live in seas all over the world  and make their own light.

3. “They may glow to scare away predator or to attract animals they like to eat...”   (paragraph 3)

The underlined word is closest in meaning to....

A. Attack
B. Arrest
C. Catch
D. Force
E. Pull

Text 2

Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive or land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30 meter length, is the largest animal which lives on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important difference in its external structure; its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its breadth, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of flat (blubber). This is up to 30 meter in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

4.. What is the text about?

A. Sea-living mammals
B. The description of mammals
C. The difference between whales and fish
D. Whales
E. How whales survive themselves

5. The length of a whale is……..

A. Is generally more than 30 meter
B. May be more than 30 meter
C. Is less than 30 meter
D. Ranges from 30 meter to more than 30 meter
E. Is 30 meter at the most

6. To tell the factual information, the writer uses…….

A. Passive voice
B. Direct speech
C. Reported speech
D. Simple past tense
E. Simple present tense

Text 3

Gold is a precious metal. Gold is used as ornaments or as money. Gold is found in many places, but in a small supply. It is often found on the surface of the earth. Since gold is a heavy substance, it is sometimes found loose on bottom of rivers. The gold is found together with sand and rocks, and must be separated from them. It is simple to search for this type of gold. It is not usually necessary to drill for gold, but when a layer of gold is located deep below the surface of the earth, it is possible to drill a hole into the ground. Engineers have developed modern process for removing gold from rocks. Since gold is not very hard, it is sometimes melted and added to other substances for making rings, coins, and art objects. It will be priced forever because it is beautiful, rare, and useful.


7. The best title of the text above is …..

A. Gold
B. Type of Gold
C. Previous Metal
D. Rare Ornaments
E. Removing Gold from Rocks

8. The following are associated with gold, except …..

A. Useful
B. Precious
C. Beautiful
D. Expensive
E. Unnecessary

9. The text above is mainly intended to …. about gold.

A. Discuss
B. Classify
C. Describe
D. Elaborate
E. Document

10. “It will be priced forever because….” (Paragraph 4). The word “priced” means ……

A. Valuable
B. Worthless
C. Interesting
D. Wonderful
E. Eye catching
    
II. Essay Test

Read the text and answer the questions!

                                                                        Tornado

The word tornado comes from Spanish language and means to twist or turn. A tornado is a whirlwind produced by atmospheric conditions, mainly extremely low pressure, during a severe thunderstorm.

Tornadoes usually turn counterclockwise. They appear as funnel shaped columns of violently rotating winds that reach down from a storm and touch the ground. Although a tornado is not always visible to the eye, tornado conditions can still be picked up on radar, or the tornado may become visible once debris and dirt are pulled into it.

A tornado may also be referred to as a funnel cloud, but this is technically not a correct term. While the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, a funnel cloud is different, not in its make up, but in the fact that it does not touch the ground. Another name that is often used to describe a tornado is twister, due to its violent twisting motion.

The tornado is one of the most unpredictable and destructive forces of nature, often destroying everything in its path. A tornado is usually preceded by severe storms, which may include lightning, high winds, and frequent hail. It can change course without notice, and is usually accompanied by a roaring sound, or as some describe it, the sound of freight train.

1. What does the word tornado mean?

2. What is a tornado?

3. How do tornadoes usually turn?

4. What do tornadoes look like?

5. What are the other names of tornadoes?

6. Why is it technically not correct to refer tornadoes as funnel clouds?

7. Why is a tornado described as a twister?

8. What usually precedes a tornado?

9. What usually accompanies a tornado?

10. What does the word some in the last line refer to?





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1 Comments

  1. hello, terima kasih artikelnya sangat membantu :) apakah pengertian dari factual report diatas didapat dari teori ahli? jika iya, bisakah saya meminta source-nya? terima kasih sebelumnya.

    ReplyDelete