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Report Text : Pengertian, Generic Structure dan contoh latihan soalnya



A. Pengertian Report Text

Salah satu bentuk teks yang juga kerap digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris baik itu verbal maupun tulisan adalah report text. Apa sebenarnya report text? Report text seringkali dinilai membingungkan karena sangat mirip dengan descriptive text. Padahal keduanya adalah berbeda. Pada kesempatan kali ini, kita akan mengupas tentang report text secara menyeluruh agar tampak perbedaan mana sebenarnya yang report text dan mana sebenarnya yang descriptive text.

Report text adalah narasi yang menjelaskan tentang sesuatu secara umum saja yang bertujuan untuk memberikan paparan informasi dalam cakupan garis besarnya. Disisi lain, report text juga termasuk ke dalam descriptive text sederhana karena memiliki tujuan untuk memberikan informasi-informasi kepada pembaca mengenai objek dari teks ini sendiri.

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Report text cenderung mengarah ke teks faktual ilmiah dan lebih umum dibandingkan dengan Description Text sehingga tidak ada opini subjektif dari penulis. Report merupakan teks yang berisi informasi apa saja yang terjadi dalam sebuah lingkup. Tujuan umum dari teks report adalah memberikan gambaran umum tentang kejadian yang baru saja terjadi melalui pengamatan dan analisis yang sistematis.

Dengan demikian bisa dilihat bahwa report text berbeda dengan descriptive text dalam hal pemaparan detilnya. Descriptive text cenderung lebih spesifik memaparkan definisi sebuah subjek. Ciri-ciri lain dari report text adalah penggunaan conditional logical connection seperti “when”, “so”, “but”, dan lainnya. Format kalimat yang digunakan adalah simple present tense.

B. Generic Structure of Report Text.

1. General Classification : Berisi gambaran umum mengenai suatu kejadian.

General classification merupakan bagian awal dari report text yang biasanya tertulis di bagian awal narasi. Bagian klasifikasi umum akan memperkenalkan topik dari tulisan atau fenomena apa yang tengah dibahas. Bentuknya bisa berupa deskripsi singkat tentang sebuah subjek. Contohnya sangat beragam, bisa jadi tema tentang dunia fauna, flora, tempat, seseorang, dan lainnya.

2. Description            : Berisi deskripsi dari kejadian yang ingin disampaikan.

Bagian kedua dalam report text adalah deksripsi. Seperti namanya, dalam bagian ini akan dipaparkan hal-hal yang lebih detil terkait dengan subjek yang dibahas seperti bentuk fisik, bagian, kualitas, perilaku, dan hal-hal detil lainnya. Setiap paragraf dalam bagian ini akan memaparkan informasi tentang sebuah fenomena atau subjek.

C. Ciri-ciri Report Text

1. Berisi fakta-fakta ilmiah tersebutlah, maka report text didominasi oleh simple present tense.

2. Judulnya akan terlihat umum.

3. Disertai gambar, data statistik, diagram atau peta untuk meyakinkan bahwa hasil penelitiannya dilakukan secara ilmiah.

4. Menggunakan pola kalimat Simple Present Tense

5. Menggunakan kata benda umum (general nouns)

6. Menggunakan kata kerja yang saling berhubungan (relating verbs)

7. Terdiri dari sebuah objek ditambah objek tentang alam lainnya.

8. Menjelaskan kelompok atau aspek umum, bukan individu secara khusus.

9. Menggunakan conditional logical conjunction; when, so, furthermore, in addition, dan lain-lain.

D. Contoh Report Text dan Penjelasannya

Contoh 1

                                                                   Thunder Lightning

Thunder Lightning is a sudden, shocked, and very fast electric force between the cloud and ground, or between clouds. The speed of  thunder can be several miles long. It is so hot, with average temperatures of 34,000 ° Celsius, that cause surrounding air suddenly expanding with a loud explosion and sounds. This is why sometimes we can hear thunder. The most dangerous type of cloud caused by lightening is called cumulonimbus. (report text)

When the cloud rises high enough, the moisture freezes and creates crystal ices and snowflakes. It began to fall, pushing the rain on the way down. This is more humid, rainy air, and it is the friction between those who generate static electricity. When the cloud is fully charged with electricity, it will burst as a flash of lightning. So lightning suddenly appears before the rain and the sounds are very loud.

Pada contoh diatas, general classification berada pada penjelasan bahwa petir adalah gesekan listrik yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba, seketika, dan sangat cepat antara awan dengan tanah atau antara awan dengan awan. Kalimat selanjutnya masuk pada description.

Contoh 2

                                                                           Skin

Skin is the outer layer of the body. In human being, it is the largest organ of the system that covers our body. Our skin has a function to protect our body from infection and extreme temperatures, maintain fluid balance, and synthesize vitamin D for our personal needs.

Skin has three main layers, which are Epidermis, Dermis, and Hypodermis that have their respective tasks and need each other. The Epidermis layer is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer does not contain blood vessels, and is formed from Merkel cells, keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Under the Epidermis layer, there is Dermis layer. This layer contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.

This layer is connected to the Epidermis layer with the basement membrane. Structurally, this layer is divided into two regions, which are the region next to the epidermis called the Papillary region, and the thick inner region that is known as the Reticular region. Furthermore, there is Hypodermis layer which located below the Dermis layer. This layer is known as Subcutaneous tissue. Hypodermis serves to attach the skin to the underlying bone and muscle and supply them with blood vessels and nerves. The combination of these three main layers has an average thickness of 1 mm.

Contoh 3

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                                                                      The Pelican

The white pelican is one of the most successfl fish-eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them.

When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed.

Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years ago.


Mungkin sekilas contoh di atas terdengar sepele, tapi menarik juga untuk diketahui, yaitu strategi burung pelikan dalam mendapatkan mangsa. Dalam report text di atas dijelaskan bahwa salah satu faktor yang membuat pelikan sukses dalam rantai makanan adalah kemampuannya untuk terbang rendah ke permukaan air dan menangkap mangsa mereka. Fakta lain yang lebih detil juga ditambahkan di bagian akhir, yaitu usia pelikan yang telah ada sejak 40 juta tahun silam. Nah kini saatnya melihat contoh report text berikutnya:

Contoh 4

                                                                        Football Play

Football is a game played by two teams of eleven. They try to score by kicking or heading the ball into the other team’s goal. Ten of the players can’t use their hands. The goal keeper can handle the ball to stop it going into the goal.

Games similar to football have been played for many centuries. The rules of the games were written down in 1863. In England, the FA (Football Association) cup was first played for in 1872. In the same year, England played Scotland in the first game.

Today the most important International Competition is the World Cup which takes place in every four years. Brazil and Italy have each won the world cup three times. The next World Cup will be held this year in Russia.


Contoh report text diatas adalah penjelasan tentang olahraga sepakbola. Paragraf dimulai dengan klasifikasi umum sepakbola sebagai olahraga antara dua tim beranggotakan 11 orang yang tidak diperkenankan menyentuh bola, kecuali kiper. Masuk ke paragraf kedua, deskripsi tentang sejarah sepakbola dipaparkan. Kali ini tentang pertama kalinya aturan sepakbola ditetapkan pada tahun 1863. Sejarah juga mencatat bahwa FA Cup pertama kali digelar pada tahun 1872. Ditutup dengan paragraf ketiga yang menjelaskan tentang Piala Dunia, ajang bergengsi empat tahunan yang tahun ini akan digelar di Rusia.

Contoh 5

                                                                               Bicycle

A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist or bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and as of 2003, more than 1 billion have been produced worldwide, twice as many as the number of automobiles that have been produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as children’s toys, general fitness, military and police applications, courier services, and bicycle racing.

The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or “safety bicycle” has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. The bicycle’s invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were initially invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, and tension-spoked wheels.

Contoh terakhir dari report text mengangkat tema tentang kendaraan roda dua yaitu sepeda. Dalam paragraf pertama dijelaskan ciri-ciri umum seputar sepeda seperti struktur, julukan yang menaikinya, sejarahnya, hingga perannya dalam kehidupan. Paragraf kedua masuk ke informasi lebih detil yaitu tentang perkembangan sepeda dari masa ke masa. Tak lupa ditambahkan informasi umum tentang komponen pelengkap dari sepeda.


So, sudah jelas bukan contoh dari report text? Sangat mudah diketahui dan bisa dibedakan dari definitive text lewat paparan di dalamnya. Judulnya saja sudah bisa dideteksi, report text biasanya menggunakan judul yang umum saja sebagaimana definisi secara garis besar.

D. Contoh Soal Latihan Report Text

Read the following text to answer questions number 1 to 3!

An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when one celestial object moves into the shadow of another. The term is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the shadow of Earth.

Eclipses may occur when the Earth and Moon are aligned with the Sun, and the shadow of one body cast by the Sun falls on the other. So at New Moon (or rather Dark Moon), when the Moon is in conjunction with the Sun, the Moon may pass in front of the Sun as seen from a narrow region on the surface of the Earth and cause a solar eclipse. At Full Moon, when the Moon is in opposition to the Sun, the Moon may pass through the shadow of the Earth, and a lunar eclipse is visible from the night half of the Earth.

An eclipse does not happen at every New or Full Moon, because the plane of the orbit of the Moon around the Earth is tilted with respect to the plane of the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, so as seen from the Earth, when the Moon is nearest to the Sun (New Moon) or at largest distance (Full Moon), the three bodies usually are not exactly on the same line.  

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1. When does lunar eclipse happen?
     A. In the morning
     B. In the afternoon
     C. In the evening
     D. In the midday

2. What is the main idea of the third paragraph?
     A. We can see the surface of the Moon from the Earth
     B. The Sun is the biggest planet in our solar system
     C. An eclipse never happens at New or Full Moon
     D. The Sun and the Moon rotate on the same line

3. What will happen if the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface? There will be ….
     A. A lunar eclipse
     B. Solar eclipse
     C. New moon
     D. Full moon

Read the following text to answer questions number 4 to 7!

Jasmine is a native flower to some tropical areas in South Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, some varieties of Jasmine are used for religious purposes.

The flower can grow up to 3 meters high and 2 meters wide. It releases its fragrance mostly after the sun sets especially nearing the full moon. Therefore, it is often associated with soothing night- time moods.

The planting of Jasmine is started by putting some cuttings in 3 inch posts within 4 weeks. After the roots grow, they are put into 6 inch pots. The soil in the pots should be kept moist but possible for the water to go through it for optimum growth.

There are some important advantages of Jasmine. In medication, this flower is often used for soothing headaches, stimulating brain, and restoring balance. Its extract is also widely used in the making of perfume.

4. When does Jasmine release the most fragrance?
     A. In the morning
     B. In the evening
     C. In the afternoon
     D. At dawn

5. What is the main idea of the last paragraph?
     A. Jasmine is grown worldwide
     B. Jasmine has various benefits
     C. Jasmine can cause headache
     D. There are some varieties of Jasmine

6. The underlined word in " ... it is often associated with ...", is closest in meaning to ....
     A. Attached
     B. Connected
     C. Compared
     D. Propagated

7. In planting Jasmine, the soil should be kept moist to make it ....
     A. Go through the water easily
     B. Grow up to 6 inch in length
     C. Produce optimum fragrance
     D. Grow optimally

Read the following text to answer questions number 8 to 10!

Butterflies are a type of insect with large and often colorful wings. They start out as eggs. They lay their eggs on leaves. The eggs hatch into caterpillars with tabular body. The caterpillar eats leaves, beds, or flowers of plants.

When a caterpillar is full sized, it goes into another stage called chrysalis. Caterpillars attach themselves to something solid before becoming a chrysalis. The caterpillar inside the chrysalis changes into a butterfly. Some butterflies make the change in one week. Some others take years to change.

When the change is complete, the adult butterfly splits the chrysalis. The insect unfolds its wings and pumps blood and air into then. It spreads out the wings until they become dry and harder. The beautiful butterfly then flies to get nectar from flowers. Most butterflies live only for one or two weeks.

8. What is the text mostly about?
     A. Butterflies' life stages
     B. How a caterpillar lives
     C. How butterflies lay their eggs
     D. Physical characteristics of butterflies

9. Why do butterflies fly to some flowers?
     A. To get nectar
     B. To pump blood
     C. To get some food
     D. To dry their wings

10. Where does a caterpillar change into a butterfly?
     A. On the flower
     B. On the leaves
     C. Inside the chrysalis
     D. Inside the nectar
 

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